Ways to shift your stretching routine from passive to dynamic

If you are like your students, you get in at least a few stretches before class. Perhaps you prop your foot on the barre and stretch out over your leg. You may even try the splits. The typical pre-class warm-up has changed little over the years, but our attempts to achieve length before the first plié may be missing the point.

The exercises mentioned above are static, or passive, stretches and, according to Deborah Vogel, should be saved for after class, when you’re finished dancing. “If you hold a stretch like that for 60 seconds or a little more, you will achieve longer length in the muscle, so it is increasing flexibility,” says Vogel, co-founder of the Center for Dance Medicine and lecturer in dance at Oberlin College. “But it’s also inhibiting the muscle’s ability to fire.” In other words, by focusing solely on length with no strength, you leave muscles loose and languid, with their strength temporarily decreased. Overstretching is a real concern, as well. Vogel warns that pushing too far in a passive stretch, especially for young dancers, can damage the structure of a joint and line the dancer up for serious injury down the road.

On the other hand, dynamic, or active, stretching lengthens some muscles while strongly engaging others. This helps prepare the whole body for movement, making it a great choice for before class. Vogel says the approach emphasizes control in the stretches, instead of how far you push yourself. It requires the dancer to move slowly through her range of motion rather than bouncing or physically pushing her body into place. This also reduces the risk of overstretching.

Beyond safety considerations, dynamic stretches can also effectively pinpoint and release tight muscles better than static stretches. If you just sit in a stretch, you may be missing the real hurdle to your greatest flexibility. “In dynamic stretching, you’re stretching the whole length of a muscle group, not just one muscle,” Vogel says. “Oftentimes, there’s some place besides the muscle you’re working on that might be limiting your flexibility.”

Dynamic hamstring stretch on the barre

Vogel recommends these active adjustments to the classic hamstring stretch on the barre. “If you are just hanging out, you will feel that in the back of the leg,” she says. But you could be feeling more.

1. Contract the quad muscle of the leg on the barre. This action helps release the hamstring for a deeper stretch at the back of the leg.

2. Slowly tilt the pelvis forward by drawing the sitz bone of the working leg back. Gently rotate the pelvis toward the working leg. Vogel says some dancers will feel a stretch in the quad while others feel it in their calf. “Now we’re working at mobilizing a line of flexibility,” she says.

 

 

Dynamic standing hamstring stretch

Get your body moving and muscles firing as you test your balance and elongate muscles throughout the standing leg.

1. Begin standing in either parallel or turned-out first.

2. Tendu back with your left leg.

3. Keeping your standing leg straight and your shoulders square, tip the body forward, lifting the leg behind you in a penché motion and reaching with your left arm toward the ground. (Keep your right hand by your side.) Stop when your left fingertips touch the floor. The goal is not to get the working leg vertical, but to move slowly and with control.

4. Leading with the shoulders and keeping your core engaged, ​return to upright with your foot returning to tendu back. Close and repeat on the other side.

Dynamic spinal rotation stretch

Actively increase mobility in the spine.

1. Begin on all fours with hands aligned under your shoulders and knees under your hips. Lift your left hand off the floor and “thread the needle” between your right hand and knee until your entire left arm and shoulder and the side of your face are on the ground.

2. To make the stretch dynamic, press your left arm into the floor while you lift the right arm up, reaching your fingertips toward the ceiling. Your shoulders should be aligned one on top of the other.

3. Place your right hand back on the floor beside your head and straighten the arm completely as you lift your body off the floor, unwinding your spine and reaching your left fingertips toward the ceiling. Again, shoulders should align one on top of the other.

4. Return your left hand to the floor. Repeat to the other side.

Dynamic warm-up and hip flexor stretch

This is particularly beneficial for young dancers as they improve control and coordination, but it is a helpful warm-up and stretch at all levels.

1. Battement your left leg in parallel to take a giant step forward.

2. In a continuous motion, lower your right knee to the ground keeping your chest lifted and back straight with your hips and shoulders square.

3. From the lunge, battement the right leg to repeat on the other side. This can move across the floor at a slow marching speed: lunge, battement, lunge, battement.

Kathleen McGuire is a former dancer and frequent contributor to Dance Teacher.

From top: Thinkstock; exercise photos by Emily Giacalone, modeled by Dia Dearstyne

PC Break the Floor

Two competition routines are equal in technical proficiency, artistry and choreography. One consists of all girls, the other includes a boy. Guess which takes home first prize?

If you guessed the one with the boy, you may be privy to an unspoken and much-debated phenomenon in the competition dance world: The Boy Factor. According to The Boy Factor, a competitive piece is more likely to win if there's a boy in it.

"If it's all technically equal and one group is all girls and the other group has a boy, the one with the boy will win," says Rysa Childress, owner of All Star Studios in Forest Hills, New York. "Boy soloists are sometimes scored higher than more technically proficient girls because if a boy has good stage presence, we let him slide," says an anonymous competition judge. "And most of the feedback will be for the boy."



The Boy Factor doesn't just have to do with competition scores: It's how we treat boys throughout their dance education. "We idolize the boys," says Ashley Harnish, a teacher at a competition studio. "We build entire dances around one boy, and we teach them that we need them more than we need the girls."

On the surface, The Boy Factor is flagrant sexism. But what's really behind the phenomenon? "So often, young male dancers are bullied because our culture says that dance is for girls," says a second national competition adjudicator. "This stigma pushes some judges to reward boys by scoring them higher than their female competitors." The Boy Factor also stems from a simple fact: There are far more girls than boys in the dance world.

"Judges see boys as valuable commodities," says Marissa Jean, a staff member at Broadway Dance Center's new building for children and teens and a teacher at several competition studios. "To encourage their career in dance, judges will throw a little extra their way. It could be placing them in the top ten or giving them a special award. They nurture them a bit more than the girls."



But by trying to retain more male talent, are we suggesting to girls that they are less valuable to the dance world than boys? "There's so much about this getting into these kids' psyches," says Childress. "Like, 'Oh the boy will beat me no matter what.' How do we teach self-worth knowing that you're going up against a boy, so what's the point?"

The Boy Factor is a product of and a contributor to the culture that sends the few men in dance up the glass escalator: "Many boys growing up in the dance world are not told the word 'no' often, so they tend to climb the professional ranks more quickly than the women," says Jean. We often bemoan the absence of female leadership in dance, but the damage is already done if we've taught young women that their gender determines their value to our community.

So what can be done about The Boy Factor? First, we could change how we encourage boys to continue dancing. Instead of empowering young men by devaluing young women, we could work as a community to dispel the culture of toxic masculinity that discourages boys from pursuing dance in the first place.

But it also falls in the hands of judges and teachers. "We need to increase awareness," says the second adjudicator. "A lot of us judges don't realize what we are promoting and the messages we send through our scoring and awards. If enough of us band together, I think we can make a difference so that this part of our field is less toxic."

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