Movement-based dance history activities for young students
While working with students to reconstruct scenes from Dido and Aeneas, the tragic opera based on Virgil’s Aeneid, Catherine Turocy recalls a moment when a collective gasp filled the rehearsal studio. Students at The Washington School of Ballet had just realized Dido dies at the end of the opera. As director of the New York Baroque Dance Company, Turocy explores the origins of ballet through historical dance workshops at studios all over the country. It’s moments like this, she says, when young students are fully invested in a work of early dance, that make it rewarding to teach.
Many dancers won’t learn dance history until they reach college, and when they do, they’ll be seated at desks reading or listening to lectures. But there are benefits to starting earlier and to using a movement-based approach. With students as young as 6, learning history enhances their understanding of dance, deepening their grasp of technique and empowering them as movers. And for younger students, in particular, Turocy says hands-on, outcome-focused activities work best. Students should always be working toward a performance or a demonstration, however small-scale. With this approach, learning centers on students’ observations and movement, rather than on abstract concepts and memorization. As a teacher, even if you aren’t staging dances from the 1700s, you can lead exercises and facilitate discussions to bring dance history into daily classes and begin training more thoughtful and insightful artists.
Delve Deeper into Technique
Encouraging students to question technique ensures a natural transition from movement to discussion. For example, in her beginning modern classes for ages 11 to 14 at BalletMet, Joyelle Fobbs will use a student’s question—“Why do you need to be able to hear the breath?” for instance—as the impetus for a mini-lesson about how early modern dance reacted against ballet. “I emphasize the fact that early moderns wanted to get real instead of pretending to be spirits defying gravity,” she says. “They wanted to acknowledge the body’s natural response to gravity and even exaggerate it.” Once students learn the history and understand the reason for the use of breath, Fobbs says they begin audibly exhaling.
Raegan Wood, director of The Taylor School, does an activity she calls “stop, drop and write” at the school’s day camps with dancers ranging from age 6 to 10. At the beginning of class, students respond in writing to questions displayed on large poster boards. She poses questions that ask students to think or predict rather than recall facts, like “How old do you think modern dance is?” or “How does ballet remind you of geometry?” After the writing activity, students take class with the question lingering in their minds. Students have the option to share their responses and any new observations at any point during the class. Writing allows each student to develop his or her own ideas. Throughout the class, the instructor can add her own insights about historical context. For instance, Balthazar de Beaujoyeulx, who is sometimes cited as creator of the first ballet, defined dance as people moving in geometric patterns.
Activities with Archival Footage
Showing students iconic choreography can provide an exciting springboard for history lessons and for their own choreographic efforts. Cherie Hill of Luna Dance Institute has used footage from Alvin Ailey’s Revelations to facilitate conversations about movement quality with her 10- and 11-year-olds. After identifying the big, open shapes and differences between long, sustained movements and quick, sudden movements, students work in groups to create their own versions of Revelations, using the same movement qualities. The results show in their technique. “It’s great for getting students to slow down and lengthen their movements,” she says.
Make Studio Decor Work for You
Consider displaying images in your studio that represent a range of important figures in dance, perhaps going back to early pioneers like Louis XIV and Marie Taglioni. This will open the door to questions and discussions. You can also use the pictures for interactive exercises. Molly Rogers, who teaches at Alonzo King LINES Ballet, recommends playing dance charades. Students explore a set of iconic dance images and practice embodying the details of each pose. Then they work in small groups to choreograph transitions between poses, creating short movement sequences. As students perform, the others watching call out the dancers and dates associated with the poses.
In her baroque dance workshops, Turocy leads a similar activity, drawing from the cultural history of classical dance. She gives students postcards from the baroque period with pictures of sculptures, paintings and courtiers. Dancers reproduce the poses in their bodies and discuss the experience, while Turocy helps them draw connections between culture and style. (For example, exposing students to the world of Western European scientists, artists and philosophers demonstrates how principles of alignment, turnout and geometric shapes were built into the culture that gave birth to ballet.) Turocy says the impact is significant. “They take on the emotional quality of the pose, which affects the plié, the efforts in the movement, the rhythm and subtle decisions in timing.” DT
Ginger O’Donnell previously taught dance and theater history at The Chicago High School for the Arts. She teaches writing at Grand Center Arts Academy in Saint Louis, Missouri.
If It’s Not Baroque…
In 1976, Catherine Turocy and Ann Jacoby founded the New York Baroque Dance Company (NYBDC) to build a bridge between the academic world of dance history, the professional world and the general public. They recruited dancers from New York ballet and modern companies and began presenting dance from 17th- and 18th-century Europe.
Today, the company employs a full roster of “performer-scholars.” They re-create everything from baroque-era street performances to full-scale operas, complete with costumes of heavy dresses, corsets and masks; music from the time; and the style’s distinctly balletic choreography with lilting port de bras and variations on petit allégro.
Each piece is meticulously researched for historical accuracy, consulting as many primary sources as possible. They study etiquette and social behavior of the time and visit historic theaters to get the feel of the stages where these performances once happened. —Andrea Marks
Photo by Sharen Bradford, courtesy of The New York Baroque Dance Company
"Honey, you’re in the wrong room!” This was how Judy Rice, now associate professor at the University of Michigan, greeted one of her first students at the Joffrey Ballet School: a retired New York City Ballet dancer who, after electing to take Rice’s beginning ballet for adults, gently insisted on staying put.
How often do teachers work with advanced and novice dancers in the same class? “From master classes to auditions, it happens a lot,” says Gerri Houlihan, dean of the American Dance Festival and a dance professor at Florida State University. Or, a teacher might be out at the last minute, making it necessary to combine levels. This prompted Sarah Ford Thompson, dance department head at The Chicago High School for the Arts, to improvise a joint class for Level-A Horton and Level-D Contemporary.
Since no two dancers are alike, the need for differentiation is ongoing. However, running a smooth, well-paced class while challenging dancers on an individual basis is its own balancing act. Here are some simple and effective strategies for accommodating diverse groups.
Layering more detailed, nuanced technique onto basic steps—or progressive stacking—allows teachers to challenge a mixture of abilities using the same combination. Working at a slower tempo, novice dancers can learn the combination while the more advanced work on movement origination, dynamics or extra turns, beats and direction changes. Both Houlihan and Tom Ralabate, a dance professor at University at Buffalo/SUNY and faculty member for Dance Masters of America, agree that this method is effective. For example, in ballet, adding a relevé, a pirouette or beats can quickly make a step more difficult.
For Rice, the ability to add these layers comes from gradually honing your class design and having a solid outline from which to work. She designs a very simple first movement across the floor to ensure “everyone will look brilliant” before making the steps progressively more difficult.
Pacing is another powerful tool, ranging from the tempo of individual combinations to the pacing of class itself. During her impromptu joint-level class, Ford Thompson used progressive stacking to teach the combination at a slow tempo. Then, she repeatedly increased the tempo “until everyone had to invest fully to keep the movement clear and on the music.”
Houlihan sees equal value in slowing down the tempo, which challenges the most advanced dancers to move with control and transition seamlessly between steps. Another option is to divide the room into groups: Rice uses grouping to teach a petit allégro, breaking down the initial steps with less experienced students while more advanced dancers rehearse the combination right and left.
Naturally, it becomes easier to accommodate diverse groups if students can make adjustments for themselves. However, many novice dancers need to be explicitly taught how to take class, as they take class. In master class settings, Ralabate finds it useful to focus on artistry, allowing students to “glimpse their own dance identity.” To create an atmosphere of artistic experimentation, he might make the combination a canon, placing dancers several counts apart, or ask them to improvise on top of the original steps.
Another method is to teach students to embrace their body type and build body awareness. For example, Ralabate—who notes that master classes often mean “teaching 100 women and a handful of men”—makes a point of giving male dancers alternate arms and corrections to encourage stylistic choices that balance masculinity and lyricism. In ballet, Rice asks her dancers to repeat anatomy terms and verbally explain their mistakes. For example, if a student falls out of a pirouette, can they identify which direction they fell, articulate why and determine how to fix it?
With high school students, Ford Thompson places more emphasis on kinesthetic understanding. Her most challenging students, she says, “intellectually understand immediately, but have to work very hard to create in the physical body what they see in their mind.” She relies on modeling (dancing the combination incorrectly alongside a student who dances it correctly, then asking students to identify the differences) to build self-awareness.
Honesty vs. Complexity
Perhaps the most direct way to challenge a diverse group of dancers—while refining your class design—is to return to the basics, focusing on quality of movement. Rice emphasizes the universal appeal of a class that is less about choreography and more about “function, alignment and honesty.” Houlihan recalls attending Maggie Black’s advanced class, then very popular with professionals, many years ago in New York City. “I was struck by how pithy, simple and straightforward [it] was,” she says. She notes that, paradoxically, most advanced dancers tend to appreciate the value of a basic class more than their less experienced counterparts, because they possess the self-awareness to continually and independently refine their movement.
Rice agrees. Early in her tenure at University of Michigan, she worked to separate the combined Level-1 and Level-2 ballet class, and she remembers not being very popular. “They fought it as freshmen,” she says of the Level-1 students. But they eventually changed their tune over the years, perhaps demonstrating how much they had grown. “As juniors and seniors, they wanted to come back.” DT
Ginger Davis O’Donnell is on faculty at The Chicago High School for the Arts.