Melissa Hayden

Ballet's unstoppable force

Not the wispy ballerina: Hayden in her heyday at New York City Ballet

At 14, Gillian Murphy remembers walking into her first class with renowned ballerina Melissa Hayden, whose intense demeanor could seem harsh. “She bounded into the room and electrified us with her energy,” says Murphy, now a principal with American Ballet Theatre. “We learned something very important about seizing the moment, pushing ourselves beyond what we thought possible.” Hayden adored students who echoed her own tough focus, and she inspired them to grab movement with both fists.

Dancing with the company longer than any other ballerina of her generation, Hayden’s tenure with New York City Ballet lasted 24 years, from 1949 to 1973 (with the exception of two interim years at Ballet Theatre). She performed the classics and originated roles in some of George Balanchine’s most important ballets, including Divertimento No. 15 (1956), Agon (1957), Liebeslieder Walzer (1960) and Brahms-Schoenberg Quartet (1966). Hayden’s triumphs, however, did not come without relentless work and unwavering stamina.

Born Mildred Herman in 1923, Hayden came to ballet late. In her hometown Toronto, the 15-year-old committed herself to study with the Russian-trained dancer Boris Volkoff. Though Volkoff once remarked that she wasn’t extremely gifted, Hayden’s determination was evident. At 20, she moved to New York City; her first stop was the Ballets Russes–based Vilzak-Shollar School. Three months later, Hayden joined the Radio City Music Hall ballet corps, but she remained steadfast in her training. Warned that she wouldn’t have the time or energy to perform four times a day and study ballet, Hayden proved her naysayers wrong. She took two classes daily and ran the seven blocks between the theater and studio.

Her dedication to training paid off when she landed a job with Ballet Theatre in 1945. And in 1949, at the invitation of Balanchine, Hayden joined New York City Ballet. Her strength and resilience became public record in 1950. A London newspaper wrote of her performance of William Dollar’s The Duel: “Ballerina knocks herself out in spot where she is supposed to die.” Hayden slipped, smashed into the floor face first and jabbed her elbow into her diaphragm. She blacked out—but after receiving mouth-to-mouth in the wings, she finished the lead role.

Despite audience veneration and peer admiration, Hayden’s crown possessed one thorn: Balanchine. As of 1953, she had yet to serve as his muse—unlike the ballerinas for whom he had created leading roles. He also denied her the lead in Swan Lake, implying she wasn’t lyrical enough to dance the Odette/Odile dual role. So she returned to Ballet Theatre that year and proved Balanchine wrong—becoming one of the foremost interpreters of the part. During her years with the company (1945–1947, 1953–1955), she developed into a lyrical and dramatic dancer, applying her athleticism to the diverse styles of Antony Tudor, Agnes de Mille, Alicia Alonso and Frederick Ashton.

Yet Hayden soon missed Balanchine’s dynamic choreography and rehearsal process. She returned to NYCB in 1955 for good, as principal dancer. And in 1961, when Hayden became pregnant with her second child, Balanchine gave her direction of the School of American Ballet’s nationwide auditions. Hayden also helped shape New York City public school dance education, originating the now-popular lecture demonstrations.

In 1973, 50-year-old Hayden retired from NYCB. Balanchine created Cortège Hongrois, granting her the honor, finally, of serving as his muse. That year New York City’s mayor awarded Hayden the Handel Medallion, the city’s highest cultural award.

But she didn’t stop there. She immediately thrust herself into teaching: She taught at Skidmore College, established a ballet school in New York City, and from 1976 to 1977, served as Pacific Northwest Ballet’s ballet mistress and school director. In 1983, she began her tenure at University of North Carolina School of the Arts, where, over a 24-year span, she taught more than 6,000 students.

Once, during a particularly grueling rehearsal series in preparation for a six-month tour with Ballet Theatre, the young Hayden unknowingly penned her epitaph. Overwhelmed and exhausted, she said, “I can’t anymore. I’ll collapse. Well, so I’ll die dancing.” She continued to teach classes until just a few weeks before her death in 2006. Dying of cancer at 83, the petite firecracker lived her entire life with ferocious tenacity. DT

Did you know:

* Melissa Hayden performed as a ballerina in Charlie Chaplin’s 1952 film, Limelight.

* In 1945, Antony Tudor gave Mildred Herman her stage name: Melissa Hayden.

* Hayden’s students include: NYCB corps member Megan LeCrone (at University of North Carolina School of the Arts) and former NYCB soloist Susan Pilarre (in Cedarhurst, NY), who now is on faculty at The School of American Ballet.

* Jacques d’Amboise, Hayden’s longtime partner, said that she kept jugs of Gatorade, thermoses of hot tea with lemon and honey, hundreds of pointe shoes and an oxygen tank in the wings.

* According to Gillian Murphy, Hayden would have new students in her UNCSA classes do jumping jacks in order to quell their nerves.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES:

Films:

Dancing for Mr. B: Six Balanchine Ballerinas (Seahorse Films, 1981).

Limelight (RKO-Pathé Studios, 1952)

The Art of the Pas de Deux, Vol. 2 (Video Artists International, 2006)

Firestone Dances, Historic Dance Performances (Kultur, 2008)

Books and Articles

Anastos, Peter. “Interview: Melissa Hayden on Ballet, Ballets, Balanchine.” Dance Magazine, August, 1973.

Boal, Peter. “A Conversation with Melissa Hayden.” Ballet Review, Spring 2007, 46-52.

Brauner, Dale. “America’s Ballerina, A Tribute to Melissa Hayden.” DanceView. Vol. 24, No. 1, Winter 2007

Gustaitis, Rasta. Melissa Hayden, Ballerina. New York: Rutledge Books, 1967.

Hayden, Melissa. Dancers to Dancer: Advice for Today’s Dancer. New York: Doubleday, 1981.

Hayden, Melissa. Melissa Hayden, Off Stage and On. New York: Doubleday & Company, 1963.

Kirstein, Lincoln. “A Tribute to Melissa Hayden.” Dance Magazine. August 1973, 32-34.

Lawson, William James. “Hayden, Melissa.” The International Encyclopedia of Dance. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Reynolds, Nancy. Repertory in Review: Forty Years of the New York City Ballet. New York, 1967.

Tracy, Robert, and Sharon DeLano. Balanchine’s Ballerinas: Conversations with the Muses. New York, 1983.

 

Rachel Straus teaches dance history at The Juilliard School.

Photo by Walter E. Owen, courtesy of Dance Magazine archives

Higher Ed
Getty Images

As we wade through a global pandemic that has threatened the financial livelihood of live performance, dancers and dance educators are faced with questions of sustainability.

How do we sustain ourselves if we cannot make money while performing? What foods are healthy for our bodies and fit within a tight unemployment budget? How do we tend to the mental, emotional and spiritual scars of the pandemic when we return to rehearsal and the stage?


The pandemic has highlighted this shared truth for dance artists: While we've been trained to dedicate our lives to the craft of art-making, we lack the knowledge to support ourselves when crisis hits. While we may have learned much about performing and creating dance in our college curriculums, most of us were not taught the answers to these questions of sustainability, or even those that come up in the normal life of a dance artist, like how to apply for a grant. Indeed, even before the pandemic, far too many dance artists faced abuse, harassment, mental health challenges, financial stress and other issues that they weren't equipped to deal with.

In 2017, inspired by the fact that dance curriculums so often hyper-focus on making and performing art but leave out the task of supporting an artistic life, choreographers David Thomson and Kate Watson-Wallace created The Sustainability Project, which seeks to create and expand discourse addressing the gap between technical and performance knowledge, and the knowledge that supports a healthy, sustainable life.

Since 2018, The Sustainability Project has been offered as a course called Artists' Sustainability at the Pratt Institute's Performance & Performance Studies graduate program, open to students of all disciplines at the undergraduate and graduate levels. The course incorporates goal-setting workbooks, discussions and projects that model artistic life postgraduation, like getting a grant funded, complete with artistic statements, proposals, budgets and a panel review.

Pratt isn't the only school to begin addressing this hole in their curriculum. At Shenandoah University, for example, Rebecca Ferrell has students in her first-year seminar for dance majors create personal and artistic budgets, and identify their personal and professional support systems.

We still have a long way to go, however, until this kind of learning is embraced as an essential part of any dance curriculum. Thomson says that while dance artists and students have embraced The Sustainability Project, school administrators have been reluctant to incorporate life-learning courses into their programs.

But if college isn't the time for this learning, when is the time? The fast-moving, demanding and exhausting life of an artist often does not leave space to learn new skills, such as balancing a budget, conflict resolution or creating a nutrition plan. And without these tools, dance artists often won't be able to put to use the artistic skills that their college programs focused on. (You can't show off your great training if you haven't been taught how to find a job, for instance.)

As the dance field struggles to survive the pandemic, it's more important than ever that dance education demystifies the working life of dance artists. Dance students are already taught to prevent injuries for the sake of their body's sustainability. Let's start thinking of dancers' careers the same way. As Thomson put it, "Would you send your child out into a snow storm with a pretty coat, hat and scarf without any shoes?"

Teachers Trending
Cynthia Oliver in her office. Photo by Natalie Fiol

When it comes to Cynthia Oliver's classes, you always bring your A game. (As her student for the last two and a half years in the MFA program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, I feel uniquely equipped to make this statement.) You never skip the reading she assigns; you turn in not your first draft but your third or fourth for her end-of-semester research paper; and you always do the final combination of her technique class full-out, even if you're exhausted.

Oliver's arrival at UIUC 20 years ago jolted new life into the dance department. "It may seem odd to think of this now, but the whole concept of an artist-scholar was new when she first arrived," says Sara Hook, who also joined the UIUC dance faculty in 2000. "You were either a technique teacher or a theory/history teacher. Cynthia's had to very patiently educate all of us about the nature of her work, and I think that has increased our passion for the kind of excavation she brings to her research."


Coming off a successful choreographic and performance career in New York City and a PhD in performance studies from New York University, Oliver held her artistic and scholarly careers in equal regard—and refused to be defined by only one of them. She demands the same rigor and versatility from the BFA and MFA students she teaches today—as in this semester's aptly titled Synthesis, a grad class where students read female-authored memoirs (Audre Lorde's Zami, Gabrielle Civil's Swallow the Fish) and then create short movement studies from prompts based on a memoir's narrative structure or content. It was Oliver, too, who advocated that grad students should be required to take at least one class outside of the dance department, as a way of guaranteeing a cross-disciplinary influence on their studies.

Oliver, wearing black pants and a green shirt, dances on a sidewalk outside a building

Natalie Fiol

But alongside her high standards, Oliver has also become known for holding space for students' complexity. "I have a tendency for a particular kind of disobedience or defiance, and people usually try to punish that," says Niall Jones, who graduated from the MFA program in 2014 and has also been a performer in Oliver's work. "But Cynthia finds a way to see and attend to what's really happening in that posture. She has a capacity to listen. There's a space for otherness in her work and in her teaching, to allow people to step into different ways of being."

Though Oliver's role at the university has undergone some shifts over the last few years, the connection between her work and her art remains a thread through everything she does. Three years ago, she began splitting her time between the dance department and the Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, where she helps scholars and faculty in the humanities and arts find support for their research. And over the summer, Oliver was named a Center for Advanced Study professor, an appointment that she'll hold until she retires, which comes with an annual research stipend and the chance to engage with other scholars across campus.

I sat down with Oliver over Zoom to pick her brain about how she crafts her legendary syllabi and what it's been like to watch dance academia slowly embrace her approach.

Oliver sits at her desk, surrounded by books and papers, leaning forward onto her forearms

Natalie Fiol

What's kept you here at Illinois for 20 years?

I came here as an experiment. I had been an independent artist in New York for many years, and I intended to continue doing that, because that was a life that worked for me. But at the same time, I would have these periods where I thought, "What am I doing?" During one of those periods, I went to grad school for performance studies. As I was finishing up, Renée Wadleigh, who had been my undergrad teacher [at Adelphi University, before Wadleigh joined the UIUC faculty] reached out to me and said, "I've been following your career. If you ever think about teaching at a university, consider Illinois." [My husband] Jason and I decided to try it for three years. We always felt like we could go back to the city if we hated it.

Many of us think: "I'm going to go into the academy, and my career will be over." It doesn't. It might amplify it in certain ways, and it might ebb and flow. For me, I needed that ebb and flow, so I could recover from a really active period and then focus on my writing and teaching for a period. It's a different kind of intellectual engagement. That's what's kept me here.

How has your approach to pedagogy changed over your time here?

In New York, I had a class that I would teach that generally was offered to other professionals who were preparing to go to rehearsal. In the academy, I had to learn a different kind of teaching, and that's where my real education started around pedagogy.

I realized that I could either continue in a kind of dominant aesthetic vein, or I could figure out what I had to offer that was different from what the students were getting from my peers in the department. So that's what I did. I called on my Afro-Caribbean background, my club dancing background, my time with Ronald K. Brown and Baba Richard González, my growing up in the Caribbean. I started to pull that material into a structure that reflected the values that I have around community and bodies being together—people understanding a depth of engagement that is not immediately Eurocentric. There was space to do my own investigation here, to think about my own pedagogical aesthetic and cultural interests, and incorporate them in my teaching. That's also what keeps me here. I can continue to question and shape and change according to certain values and attach those to my research interests.

Oliver stands in her office, leaning back against a filing cabinet and smirking at the camera

Natalie Fiol

I've always assumed that the seminars you teach in the grad program are so writing- and research-intensive because of your experience getting your PhD in performance studies. Is that true?

I have a strong intellectual interest. My experience going into performance studies enriched my practice in ways that I could not have imagined. I remember what it felt like to have all of those pistons firing while I was making work. It was overwhelming, it was stimulating, it was exciting. I wanted to cry, I wanted to scream—all at once. I think I offer that to our program. There's also my insistence on the cross-disciplinary requirement in our program. You all have to reach outside of the department to engage with other intellectuals and creative practitioners across disciplines to inform your own.

There are grad students who have cursed me for bringing that kind of rigor. But my experience in the field has been about my being able to talk about my work in-depth—about the choices I make, about epistemologies around it, about world views, influences, all of that. In order to do that convincingly, you have to have a foundation. I want you all to be legit, to know what it is you're talking about your own work in relation to. And that comes from an intellectual heft.

The syllabi you create for the grad classes are incredible. They're so thoughtful, so detailed, so well-crafted. How do you do that?

I work on my syllabi like I work on my choreographic projects. I piece these bad boys together over time. I do not do it in a rush. I take notes. If I come across something—a scholar, what I've read, what someone said—I'll jot it down. Eventually, I'll pull all of those notes together. That's when it gets exciting. There's always something serendipitous about it.

There are people who don't see the labor that goes into my class. And that's when I say, "OK, I'm going to reveal the bones of this in a way I wouldn't, ordinarily." For example, in a course I'm teaching this semester, I only used texts by women. I didn't walk in and announce it—"Well, if you would notice, all of these authors are women"—I just did it, because, for me, that was a feminist act. Because that's how a white, patriarchal voice works: It presumes authority, and it offers you this information—and you are supposed to take it, as if that's the law of intellectual curiosity, of how one should think.

Oliver, in black pants and a green shirt, dances in a grassy area by a street. She leans to the side, her arms swaying beside her

Natalie Fiol

Your longtime approach is finally being picked up by dance programs across the country that are slowly decolonizing their curriculums. Does that make you feel excited? Relieved?

There's a part of me that is tired, to be honest. Because artists of color have been doing this work for a really long time—that labor has always rested on our shoulders. I have to resist any moments of cynicism and really be willing to just seize the moment and work with folks to make the changes happen. I don't know that America as a whole is ready for it, but it feels like institutions are finally ready to look at the ways inequity has historically been established and continues through the systems in place.

So how do you combat that feeling of tiredness?

I think by seeing things happen, by seeing change—seeing more students of color in our program, for example. I'm excited that I have two additional colleagues of color [associate professor Endalyn Taylor and assistant professor C. Kemal Nance] on our faculty. We're not a perfect situation, but our department head, Jan Erkert, has made this a priority. That makes it easier to make people feel more welcome. At the same time, you have to understand that if you change your curriculum to be more inclusive—as it should be—you also have to be nimble and responsive to what the needs are of that diverse community. Those are the growing pains that have to happen.

News
Clockwise from top left: Courtesy Ford Foundation; Christian Peacock; Nathan James, Courtesy Gibson; David Gonsier, courtesy Marshall; Bill Zemanek, courtesy King; Josefina Santos, courtesy Brown; Jayme Thornton; Ian Douglas, courtesy American Realness

Since 1954, the Dance Magazine Awards have celebrated the living legends of our field—from Martha Graham to Misty Copeland to Alvin Ailey to Gene Kelly.

This year is no different. But for the first time ever, the Dance Magazine Awards will be presented virtually—which is good news for aspiring dancers (and their teachers!) everywhere. (Plus, there's a special student rate of $25.)

The Dance Magazine Awards aren't just a celebration of the people who shape the dance field—they're a unique educational opportunity and a chance for dancers to see their idols up close.


Here's why your dancers (and you!) should tune in:

They'll see dance history in the making.

Carlos Acosta. Debbie Allen. Camille A. Brown. Laurieann Gibson. Alonzo King.

If you haven't already taught your students about these esteemed awardees, odds are you'll be adding them to your curriculum before long.

Not only will your students get to hear from each of them at a pivotal moment in their careers (and Dance Magazine Awards acceptance speeches are famously chock-full of inspiration), they'll also hear from presenters like William Forsythe and Theresa Ruth Howard.

This year, all the Dance Magazine Awards are going to Black artists, as a step towards repairing the history of honoring primarily white artists.

And meet tomorrow's dance legends.

Dance Magazine's Harkness Promise Awards, this year going to Kyle Marshall and Marjani Forté-Saunders, offer funding, rehearsal space and mentorship to innovative young choreographers in their first decade of presenting work—a powerful reminder to your students that major success in the dance world doesn't happen overnight.

They'll get a glimpse of what happens behind the scenes.

Solely teaching your students how to be a great dancer doesn't give them the full picture. A complete dance education produces artists who are savvy about what happens behind the scenes, too.

In 2018, Dance Media launched the Chairman's Award to honor those behind-the-scenes leaders who keep our field moving. Each year's recipient is chosen by our CEO, Frederic M. Seegal. This year's award goes to Ford Foundation president Darren Walker, who is using philanthropy to make the performing arts—and the world at large—more just.

And, of course, see dozens of great dance works.

Where else could your students see selections from Alonzo King's contemporary ballet classics next to Camille A. Brown's boundary-pushing dance theater works? Or see both Carlos Acosta and Laurieann Gibson in action in the same evening? Excerpts from the awardees' works will show your students what it is exactly that makes these artists so special.

So gather your class (virtually!) and join us next Monday, December 7, at 6 pm. To receive the special student rate, please email dmawards@dancemedia.com.

See you there!

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