In his technique, Matt Mattox has a series of codified warm-up exercises that often combine straightforward legwork with complex port de bras, as in this tendu sequence. Mattox expert Bob Boross finds that teaching the lower half of the body first and then adding in the arms helps students wrap their brains around it faster.
Jazz dance grew out of African music and dance roots, including jazz music. It is based on stylistic vernacular movements (social dances created outside of a studio), but during the 1950s, a split from vernacular-based jazz dance (cakewalk, Charleston, jitterbug, swing, etc.) created a theatrical-based version of jazz dance with Caribbean and Latin American influences. This is the version that can now be seen on Broadway and in the codified forms of jazz dance from masters such as Mattox, Luigi and Gus Giordano.
To be included in the jazz dance heritage, Boross says, a dance work should embody a noticeable amount of traditional jazz dance movement characteristics. That would include dancing in plié, movement that emanates from the pelvis and through the extremities, isolations, syncopation, dynamic extremes, strong energy flow either in visible bursts or in contained format (hot vs. cool), and letting the movement reflect reactions to rhythmic accompaniment.
Jazz dance, together with jazz music, is a living form of American history because it reflects the social, political and religious issues of the era in which the dances were created and made popular. That is why, in order to be fully knowledgeable, dancers and choreographers must learn the vernacular and understand how it informs contemporary feeling, says Boross. One example: Michael Jackson was credited with creating the Moonwalk, but 1920s vaudeville performers who had extracted it from mime technique performed the movement on a regular basis. “Dancers from today's time period have no exposure to that potent source," says Boross. “So their movement ability is deficient, if you are talking about understanding the original feeling." To focus exclusively on the contemporary style, which tends to be a mix of ballet and modern with few jazz qualities, “without mastering the deep well of potential and power than can be found in the vernacular," says Boross, “is a wasted opportunity to expand and improve one's expressive skills."
Taking It Into the Studio
As an instructor, aim to teach the historical and cultural context behind jazz dance from its roots on through its continual evolution. When you take time out of a technique class to teach the historical correlation, it helps dancers better understand the movement, Boross says. “It sparks a new, personal and intense connection," he says. “The student then gives a performance with fuller meaning and more authentic feeling, leading to more impact on the audience. A swing combination, for example, might lead to a discussion about the Lindy, the Savoy Ballroom and how Jack Cole would visit the ballroom to observe the dancers and bring those observations into his own style and choreography.
- Make sure to utilize the core elements of traditional jazz dance—an earthy quality, pliés, isolations and syncopation.
- Utilize DVDs and online videos to compare and contrast current trends. There are online clips from the early 1900s where you can see the beginnings of tap dance and jazz dance, as well as traditional African dance.
- Teach short movement phrases from specific time periods, including the original vernacular versions—even with the aid of video clips—is a useful way to introduce students to the historical background of the creators and the social and political climate of the time and location.