John Bubbles

 The soul of rhythm tap

“Tap is just about the hardest thing to explain. Just keep on tapping along. That’s about the size of it.” —John Bubbles (Bubbles as his signature role of Sportin' Life, in Porgy and Bess)

John Bubbles entered the Hoofers Club for the first time in 1920 when he was just 18 years old. Already a singer, he had hopes of becoming a dancer, too, and knew that the Hoofers Club was the place to go. (In the 1920s and ’30s, this back room in a Harlem comedy club was the most popular place for tap dancers to hang out and jam; they’d gather in the back and dance for each other in an atmosphere of friendly competition.) Bubbles stepped onto the floor, did a strut and a turn and got laughed right out of the club. That embarrassing moment was all the motivation he needed to become one of the greatest tap dancers of his time. Often called “The Father of Rhythm Tap” because of his inventive musicality and low-to-the-ground style, Bubbles pioneered a new way of tapping that laid the groundwork for how it’s practiced today by dancers such as Jason Samuels Smith.

After his first Hoofers Club debacle, Bubbles, along with his vaudeville partner Ford Lee “Buck” Washington, went west, touring the Orpheum circuit—one of the biggest chains of vaudeville theaters in the nation. (As African-American men, Buck and Bubbles broke many color barriers throughout their careers: Unlike most black performers, the duo never appeared on the black Theater Owners Booking Association circuit, which offered less prestige and pay than white vaudeville.) It was during this Orpheum circuit tour that Bubbles began to practice tap on his own and incorporate his moves into their act (which they’d continue for more than 20 years). In 1922, an engagement at the Palace Theatre took the pair back to New York, and Bubbles went back to the Hoofers Club. This time, things were much different.

Amid the flourishing cultural activity of the Harlem Renaissance, Bubbles was breathing new life into tap dance. Though he was self-taught, he used old steps in new ways, drawing inspiration from other performers he toured with, including Lancashire-clog dancer Harland Dixon. He added endless complexity to the form by changing the tempo and experimenting with variations on steps and rhythmic syncopations. Most tap dance at the time was done to a fast, two-beat feel common to early jazz tunes. Steps were interspersed with jumps, splits and large movements. Bubbles instead divided each measure into four beats, thus slowing the tempo and leaving him more room to add sounds. Although he executed big steps like double over-the-tops and backward trenches, much of his dancing was done with a relaxed, casual air. This created one of the greatest dichotomies of the form: complex footwork with an easy feel.

Though it’s a common practice within tap culture to “steal” steps one sees others execute, Bubbles did all he could to keep fellow tap dancers from copying his steps. His ever-changing intricacies of steps and time signatures meant that his competitors never saw the same step twice. The complexity of his steps came from his heels. Whereas dancers before him, most notably Bill “Bojangles” Robinson, stayed up on their toes, Bubbles is credited with being the first to drop his heels, thus adding a variety of new accents and syncopations to his phrasing. The low tones of his heel drops allowed him to establish unusual counterpoint rhythms within his dancing. He made longer, more dynamic phrases that would not become widely popular until the advent of bebop in the mid-1940s.

After years performing in vaudeville and appearing in the Ziegfeld Follies of 1931, the laidback style and ingenious choreography of John Bubbles was well-known. In 1935, George Gershwin chose him to originate the role of Sportin’ Life in his new opera Porgy and Bess, in which Bubbles sang “It Ain’t Necessarily So.” In the late 1930s and ’40s, Buck and Bubbles went to Hollywood and appeared in several motion pictures, including Varsity Show, Cabin in the Sky and A Song Is Born. The pair were the first black artists to perform at Radio City Music Hall and most likely the first to appear on television, in a broadcast from London.

Although Buck died in 1955, Bubbles continued to work in television as a guest performer on The Lucy Show and The Tonight Show. He traveled with Bob Hope to perform in Vietnam and only stopped performing after suffering a stroke in 1967. He mentored Chuck Green, of Chuck and Chuckles, and remained active in the tap community well into the ’80s. When asked about Bubbles’ lasting influence, Jason Samuels Smith replied: “He may be the most stylistically influential tap dancer in history. His phrasing, vocabulary and execution were futuristic, not to mention flawless. Dancers today debate whether he was the greatest ever. He is.”

Did You Know?

* Michael Jackson named his pet chimpanzee, Bubbles, after John Bubbles.

* Fred Astaire took tap lessons from Bubbles to prepare for his role in the 1936 movie Swing Time.

* Bubbles performed with Judy Garland in 1967 at the Palace Theatre.

* In 1980, he received the Life Achievement Award from the American Guild of Variety Artists.

* Though he originated the role of Sportin’ Life in Gershwin’s 1935 opera Porgy and Bess, Bubbles was not on the original cast recording, released in 1940—he was replaced by Avon Long.

* While performing on tour together, Bubbles is said to have told Elvera Davis (about her then 2-year-old son Sammy Davis Jr.): “I don’t mind him watching from the wings, but I don’t want him stealing all my steps.” Davis Jr. later played Sportin’ Life in the 1959 movie Porgy and Bess. DT

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES: 

Print

Jazz Dance: The Story of American Vernacular Dance by Marshall and Jean Stearns. 2nd ed., Da Capo, 1994.

The Book of Tap by Jerry Ames and Jim Siegelman. David McKay, 1977.

Shoot Me While I’m Happy by Jane Goldberg. Woodshed Prod., 2008.

“Bubbles Bounces Back,” Ebony, January 1965.

Movies

“Varsity Show,” Warner Bros., 1937.

“Cabin In the Sky,” MGM, 1943.

“A Song Is Born,” Samuel Goldwyn, 1948.

Jenai Cutcher is a tap dancer, writer and filmmaker. She holds an MFA in dance from The Ohio State University.

Photo: Bubbles as his signature role, Sportin' Life, in Porgy and Bess (courtesy of Dance Magazine Archives)

Music
Mary Malleney, courtesy Osato

In most classes, dancers are encouraged to count the music, and dance with it—emphasizing accents and letting the rhythm of a song guide them.

But Marissa Osato likes to give her students an unexpected challenge: to resist hitting the beats.

In her contemporary class at EDGE Performing Arts Center in Los Angeles (which is now closed, until they find a new space), she would often play heavy trap music. She'd encourage her students to find the contrast by moving in slow, fluid, circular patterns, daring them to explore the unobvious interpretation of the steady rhythms.


"I like to give dancers a phrase of music and choreography and have them reinterpret it," she says, "to be thinkers and creators and not just replicators."

Osato learned this approach—avoiding the natural temptation of the music always being the leader—while earning her MFA in choreography at California Institute of the Arts. "When I was collaborating with a composer for my thesis, he mentioned, 'You always count in eights. Why?'"

This forced Osato out of her creative comfort zone. "The choices I made, my use of music, and its correlation to the movement were put under a microscope," she says. "I learned to not always make the music the driving motive of my work," a habit she attributes to her competition studio training as a young dancer.

While an undergraduate at the University of California, Irvine, Osato first encountered modern dance. That discovery, along with her experience dancing in Boogiezone Inc.'s off-campus hip-hop company, BREED, co-founded by Elm Pizarro, inspired her own, blended style, combining modern and hip hop with jazz. While still in college, she began working with fellow UCI student Will Johnston, and co-founded the Boogiezone Contemporary Class with Pizarro, an affordable series of classes that brought top choreographers from Los Angeles to Orange County.

"We were trying to bring the hip-hop and contemporary communities together and keep creating work for our friends," says Osato, who has taught for West Coast Dance Explosion and choreographed for studios across the country.

In 2009, Osato, Johnston and Pizarro launched Entity Contemporary Dance, which she and Johnston direct. The company, now based in Los Angeles, won the 2017 Capezio A.C.E. Awards, and, in 2019, Osato was chosen for two choreographic residencies (Joffrey Ballet's Winning Works and the USC Kaufman New Movement Residency), and became a full-time associate professor of dance at Santa Monica College.

At SMC, Osato challenges her students—and herself—by incorporating a live percussionist, a luxury that's been on pause during the pandemic. She finds that live music brings a heightened sense of awareness to the room. "I didn't realize what I didn't have until I had it," Osato says. "Live music helps dancers embody weight and heaviness, being grounded into the floor." Instead of the music dictating the movement, they're a part of it.

Osato uses the musician as a collaborator who helps stir her creativity, in real time. "I'll say 'Give me something that's airy and ambient,' and the sounds inspire me," says Osato. She loves playing with tension and release dynamics, fall and recovery, and how those can enhance and digress from the sound.

"I can't wait to get back to the studio and have that again," she says.

Osato made Dance Teacher a Spotify playlist with some of her favorite songs for class—and told us about why she loves some of them.

"Get It Together," by India.Arie

"Her voice and lyrics hit my soul and ground me every time. Dream artist. My go-to recorded music in class is soul R&B. There's simplicity about it that I really connect with."

"Turn Your Lights Down Low," by Bob Marley + The Wailers, Lauryn Hill

"A classic. This song embodies that all-encompassing love and gets the whole room groovin'."

"Diamonds," by Johnnyswim

"This song's uplifting energy and drive is infectious! So much vulnerability, honesty and joy in their voices and instrumentation."

"There Will Be Time," by Mumford & Sons, Baaba Maal

"Mumford & Sons' music has always struck a deep chord within me. Their songs are simultaneously stripped-down and complex and feel transcendent."

"With The Love In My Heart," by Jacob Collier, Metropole Orkest, Jules Buckley

"Other than it being insanely energizing and cinematic, I love how challenging the irregular meter is!"

For Parents

Darrell Grand Moultrie teaches at a past Jacob's Pillow summer intensive. Photo Christopher Duggan, courtesy Jacob's Pillow

In the past 10 months, we've grown accustomed to helping our dancers navigate virtual school, classes and performances. And while brighter, more in-person days may be around the corner—or at least on the horizon—parents may be facing yet another hurdle to help our dancers through: virtual summer-intensive auditions.

In 2020, we learned that there are some unique advantages of virtual summer programs: the lack of travel (and therefore the reduced cost) and the increased access to classes led by top artists and teachers among them. And while summer 2021 may end up looking more familiar with in-person intensives, audition season will likely remain remote and over Zoom.

Of course, summer 2021 may not be back to in-person, and that uncertainty can be a hard pill to swallow. Here, Kate Linsley, a mom and academy principal of Nashville Ballet, as well as "J.R." Glover, The Dan & Carole Burack Director of The School at Jacob's Pillow, share their advice for this complicated process.

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Teachers Trending

From left: Anthony Crickmay, Courtesy Dance Theatre of Harlem Archives; Courtesy Ballethnic

It is the urgency of going in a week or two before opening night that Lydia Abarca Mitchell loves most about coaching. But in her role as Ballethnic Dance Company's rehearsal director, she's not just getting the troupe ready for the stage. Abarca Mitchell—no relation to Arthur Mitchell—was Mitchell's first prima ballerina when he founded Dance Theatre of Harlem with Karel Shook; through her coaching, Abarca Mitchell works to pass her mentor's legacy to the next generation.

"She has the same sensibility" as Arthur Mitchell, says Ballethnic co-artistic director Nena Gilreath. "She's very direct, all about the mission and the excellence, but very caring."

Ballethnic is based in East Point, a suburban city bordering Atlanta. In a metropolitan area with a history of racism and where funding is hard-won, it is crucial for the Black-led ballet company to present polished, professional productions. "Ms. Lydia" provides the "hard last eye" before the curtain opens in front of an audience.

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