Teachers & Role Models

Martha Graham: American Modern Dance Pioneer

Martha Graham in Deaths and Entrances (1943). Photo by Chris Alexander, courtesy of Dance Magazine archives

One of the most influential choreographers of the 20th century, Martha Graham (1894–1991) helped lead the American modern dance revolution, breaking from the traditions of classical ballet as well as the romantic style of earlier modern dance pioneers. The Pennsylvania native came to dance relatively late: At 22 she began studying with Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn and joined the Denishawn dancers soon after. Graham formed her own performance troupe in 1926, and in order to train dancers for her work, she developed a codified technique. Her movement vocabulary stemmed from breathing: the changes in one's body from the actions of exhale (contraction) and inhale (release). Over time, she developed a series of complex floor-work exercises (also including falls and spirals) that evolved into what we know as Graham technique.


Fun Facts:

  • To help fund her burgeoning company, Graham taught a movement for actors class in Greenwich Village. Students included Bette Davis, Gregory Peck and Orson Welles.
  • Invited by Eleanor Roosevelt, Graham was the first dancer to perform at the White House—for President Franklin Roosevelt in 1937.
  • Graham received a Dance Magazine Award in 1956 and the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1976.
  • Erick Hawkins was the first male dancer in Graham's company. They were married for two years.

Vocabulary

  • CONTRACTION: The percussive action of exhale; it's a curved lower spine and rounded pelvis—initiated from the pelvis.
  • RELEASE: The action of inhale. Initiated with the pelvis, it's an extended lower back and elongated spine.
  • INNER LANDSCAPE: "The soul of man." It was Graham's fundamental quest to express the human psyche.

The Work:

Capturing human emotion, desire and suffering, Graham's dramatic and often politically charged works draw inspiration from American life, ritual and Greek mythology. She often starred in her pieces and didn't retire from the stage until well into her 70s. Notable works include:

  • Lamentation (1930): Perhaps Graham's most famous work, the grieving performer is constrained by a tube of fabric.
  • Chronicle (1936): Graham choreographed this work after rejecting Nazi Germany's invitation to perform at the Berlin Olympics. It expresses the plight of the suffering during the Great Depression and wartime devastation.
  • Appalachian Spring (1944): Created in collaboration with composer Aaron Copland, this American masterpiece illustrates a young pioneer couple on their wedding day.
  • Night Journey (1947): It's the story of Oedipus from Jocasta's perspective, with a set by Isamu Noguchi and music by William Schuman.
  • Maple Leaf Rag (1990): A departure from Graham's usual dramatic work, this humorous piece is set to the music of Scott Joplin.

The Legacy Lives On:

*Led by artistic director Janet Eilber, Martha Graham Dance Company continues to tour internationally. It performs Graham's masterpieces as well as works by contemporary choreographers like Doug Varone, Lar Lubovitch and Richard Move, who is best known for his critically acclaimed impersonations of Graham.

*The Martha Graham School of Contemporary Dance is now located in the historic Westbeth studios of Manhattan's West Village. Virginie Mécène directs the school and its performance troupe Graham II.

*Former members of MGDC include Jacqulyn Buglisi, Merce Cunningham, Pearl Lang, Elisa Monte, Pascal Rioult, Anna Sokolow, Paul Taylor and Glen Tetley.

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Q: I'm looking to hire new instructors. How can I create a competitive job listing?

A: We've found the best way to attract qualified applicants for teaching positions at our studio is to be as specific as possible with our expectations, while communicating what makes our studio a great place to work.

Here's an example of a job description we've used when seeking teachers:

Lead Dance Instructor: Tap/Jazz/Contemporary; Choreography for Dance Teams.

Kathy Blake Dance Studios is seeking new instructors to join our faculty. Our performing arts school, located in the Souhegan Valley of New Hampshire, has an emphasis on excellence and love for the art of dance, with a student base aged 2 to adult. We pride ourselves on paying our teachers well, offering a professionally managed front office and fostering a sense of teamwork and collaboration among our staff.

We have an immediate opening for a dance instructor whose specialty is teaching intermediate to advanced tap, jazz and/or contemporary, as well as choreographing for competitive dance teams. We are seeking a creative, forward-thinking teacher who brings out the best in dancers. Schedule of 5 to 10-plus classes a week, based on availability. Position begins in August (or sooner, based on teacher availability). The school year runs from September through June. Pay is competitive and commensurate with experience and credentials.

Interested instructors: Please e-mail or reply to this ad with a current resumé and phone number, as well as what you love about teaching and what matters most to you in working for a dance studio.

Can't teach on our regular schedule? Please let us know if you'd like to be considered for our guest-artist master-class events.

Kathy Blake (Kathy Blake Dance Studios in Amherst, New Hampshire) and Suzanne Blake Gerety co-founded DanceStudioOwner.com.

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XOXO

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