Patel Conservatory students Marta Kelly and Jackson Kettell in "On the Edge"
Whether you start from scratch or use a time-honored syllabus, the key to a successful student body lies in an organized curriculum.
Choreographing enough combinations to fill an hour-and-a-half dance class is the easy part—in a pinch, you can even manage it on the spot. However, in order to be an effective teacher over a long period, you have to have a structure and a plan. Using a curriculum—mapping out what skills you’re going to teach and when—can be the key to creating an organized faculty and successful student body. Some schools take that one step further and require faculty to use a syllabus that outlines specific steps, lectures and combinations at each level. But curriculum planning doesn’t happen overnight; as Patel Conservatory dance department chair Peter Stark can attest, it’s a continuous and relentless process.
Since taking the reins in 2006, Stark has shaped the Florida-based school’s curriculum and is seeing rewarding results. A former dancer with New York City Ballet, Boston Ballet and The Washington Ballet, Stark became director of Orlando Ballet School in 2000 and started working with the Patel Conservatory in Tampa six years later. He has students in top companies worldwide and most recently, his student Hannah Bettes, 16, won senior gold at the Youth America Grand Prix finals in New York and a scholarship at the Prix de Lausanne to train at The Royal Ballet School in England.
Stark took a varied approach when plotting Patel’s curriculum. For the youngest levels—ages 3 to 6—he purchased the Leap ’N Learn syllabus (created by Beverly Spell) and tweaked it to meet the school’s needs. The pre-professional levels incorporate the structure of the Vaganova syllabus and elements of Marcia Dale Weary’s program at Central Pennsylvania Youth Ballet. And though all teachers receive a notebook of materials for their level—including the overarching goals, steps that students are required to learn and an initial lesson plan—nothing is set in stone.
Dance Teacher speaks with stark about the keys to his success:
Are there ever disagreements among the faculty?
Yes, it’s a constant conversation. We start every year with a full-day teacher retreat where we look at everything and argue and haggle. I’ll say, “I want a wrapped frappé.” And someone else will say, “But you don’t get a full brush if you’re not in a flex!”
My team is headed by myself and my colleague Ivonne Lemus. I came from School of American Ballet and danced initially with NYCB, and she’s from the National Ballet of Cuba. We are divergent in our backgrounds so we argue all the time, but we love and respect each other and have seen that there are things from both of our methodologies that we can merge to make students better.
Which of those styles would you say your syllabus is most influenced by?
We are a stepping-stone school, meaning we are not affiliated with any one company, so we have to be broad-based enough that our students can move into a Balanchine style or a traditional, more classical style.
My analogy is that ballet is a tree. The base of the tree is what we’re doing. Balanchine style would be one branch, Vaganova style would be another branch, Royal Academy of Dance would be another, but we’re really trying not to go down any of those branches. It’s stylistically neutral and structurally sound. We aim to give students the tools so that when they go down any of the branches, they can handle it and adjust to the specificity of that style.
Has your syllabus changed over the years?
Participating in competitions like Youth America Grand Prix has really enabled us teachers to see what people—who are hiring and offering scholarships—are responding to. I’m not that old, but when I was training, not all of the boys had full splits. Now you wouldn’t see a professional male dancer without splits on both sides. It’s expected! That’s a very simplistic example, but the fact of the matter is the artform is ever evolving, and if you want to create students who are employable, you have to keep responding to that. We’ve got to change our thinking. There are always things that we can improve on, in terms of how we’re preparing students to excel beyond our school.
So you’re never truly done.
It’s a living artform. The key to our success is that we keep changing. Every time I watch somebody else’s class, I get ideas. Most recently I watched the class of Raymond Lukens, who helped create the curriculum at ABT, and his analogies and combinations together were months of material that I can utilize. I was also fortunate to watch Jock Soto’s class, which was totally inspiring. He was having the dancers move so incredibly fast. I thought I was fast, and he was like 10 times my speed! I am constantly inspired to continue to push and to change.
Would you advise others to work with such a clearly structured curriculum?
You have to. Otherwise, you might produce a student here and there—talent will survive regardless. But if you want to train consistent talent, you have to have a system. Also, two people can accomplish more than one, and the only way to work collaboratively is to have something you can look back to. We constantly reassess what we are doing, but it’s the team effort that makes it successful. Star students come and go, star teachers come and go, but a methodology can maintain through that. DT
Kate Lydon teaches for American Ballet Theatre’s Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis School and is editor at large at DanceMedia.
A curriculum may be in place, but your students will ultimately dictate the daily or weekly lesson plans. Here, three educators share their tactics for staying on track.
Lesle Shafer Koval currently teaches modern dance technique and Laban Movement Analysis, and she is a senior project advisor at The Boston Conservatory. She has created her own curriculum and syllabi for both of her classes.
My point of view comes from Laban Movement Analysis, and even in my modern technique class it gives me an organizing structure. I always come to class with notes that are thought through very carefully, but I’ll stray from them if necessary. I don’t plan my next class until I’ve taught the one before, because I need to evaluate: Did they get it? Do they need to do this again? Are we ready to move on?
Melissa Bowman, assistant principal of American Ballet Theatre’s Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis School and director of the JKO School’s Children’s Division, was on the advisory committee for ABT’s National Training Curriculum. She follows those guidelines to create her own syllabi for the classes she leads.
I start with what I want my students to achieve and I work backward. I see where my students are technically, then I start introducing the most basic elements. For example, this year my 2As (9–11 years old, whom I see two times per week) learned assemblés, but I had to go back through pliés, tendus, dégagés, sautés and relevés. I figure out a progression. Then I have about four combinations written down for each element that needs to be achieved.
Gerri Houlihan has been teaching at Florida State University for six years. While some of the syllabi were already in place, others she designed, redesigned or tweaked.
I team-teach a teaching methods class (required for all senior dancers) with Tom Welsh. He’s one of those people who fleshes out his syllabus with incredible detail—he knows exactly what is happening every day over the weeks of the course. I use his syllabus, though half the time—especially after choreography showings—I’ll say, “You know what? Can we talk about…” and the next thing you know we are off on a totally different path. It’s much more my nature to be in the moment. He’ll indulge me to a point, and then he will say, “OK, now moving back to the plan.”
Photo: Patel Conservatory students Marta Kelly and Jackson Kettell in “On the Edge”; by Soho Images, courtesy of the David A. Straz, Jr. Center for the Performing Arts
Jacques inspires a group of public school children in a National Dance Institute Class.
Jacques d'Amboise talks with Dance Teacher contributing editor Kate Lydon about teaching dance in public schools, his boundless energy and what Mr. B thought about NDI.
Why do you think it’s important for everyone to have the opportunity to learn to dance?
You go to school to learn. How can you consider yourself learned if you don’t know anything about music, dance, theater and poetry or science and mathematics? The best way to learn about anything is to do it. Does that mean, if you take math and do science experiments in a lab, that you have to grow up to be a scientist or a physicist? No! You take math because it’s important in your learning. Why aren’t music, dance, poetry and theater part of the learning process in our school systems? And treated equally to other subjects? My belief is that you are not a learned person without knowing these aspects that describe what makes us human.
Do you have tricks for getting uninterested students involved and listening?
All learning is best done in the form of play. When there’s an individual attempting to acquire the mastery of a skill and the teacher can turn the learning into a form of play that has to do with challenges, it works. The student has to achieve a higher level of excellence to play the game.
I’ll give you an example: The mother says to her 10-year-old daughter, “Hey, it’s your turn to put out the garbage.” The little girls says, “Ah, Mom, I’m so tired! I’ve been playing all day. I don’t want to put out the garbage.” A child will play until she drops, if it’s a game, so mother says, “What if you put out the garbage walking backwards and singing ‘The Star Spangled Banner.’ I bet you can do it, but if you can’t do it, then your brother gets to try after you.” Well the brother, who has been smirking about his sister having to put out the garbage, now wants to do it, and the girl can’t wait to get up, walk backwards and sing as she takes the garbage out. Everything is learned by meeting challenges that are joyful. When doing something to pass a test with fear as the reason, you cram, you pass it, maybe, and you forget it as soon as you can. You hate the subject. But what if learning was joyful and exciting and passing tests was only part of this big game of discovering pathways toward excellence? That’s what NDI strives to do.
What about working with kids who are having lots of trouble with the material?
Work to make sure that person is brought out of being the loser or the failure. He or she will be your most important success. Other students will look back and think: My teacher was strict, but he/she never gave up. Maybe one day I’ll be the loser and my teacher won’t give up on me.
You have always had this infectious energy. How important is that to you?
In science, the arts, on and offstage: If you make the formula for life, the first fluid you put into the beaker is energy. Without energy nothing happens.
What did Mr. Balanchine think about NDI?
Balanchine used to come to all the NDI performances. We would finish doing a big show and I would go to the cast party. Seven o’clock the next morning my phone would ring. “It’s Balanchine,” he would say. “Last night. Wonderful. Very important. Children learn about music and dance. The real thing. A performance with audience looking and they either applaud or boo.” The last show he came to, when he was dying, he had written me a song. Oh, it’s so beautiful. It’s in my book. I had commissioned it and given him a $500 check, and he tore it up. And by the way, that song describes him. He was like light.
Kate Lydon teaches for American Ballet Theatre’s Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis School and is editor in chief of Dance Spirit.
Photo by Matthew Murphy
Do you call the pirouette position passé or retiré, or do you use both? What about the term élevé? Do you use it? Have you ever considered what these French words actually mean?
“Ballet terminology is somewhat subjective,” says Raymond Lukens of ABT’s JKO School. “Often there is no definitive way to say something. What’s really important is to create a picture in the minds of your students so that they will do the step you’re asking the best way possible. You can split hairs forever over this stuff!”
Another thing to keep in mind is this, says Lukens: “For the French, ballet terms are seen as verbs or action words, and to non-French speakers they’re seen as labels for the movements.” —Kate Lydon
Tendu Everyone in the world who knows ballet understands what you mean when you say, “Four tendus front,” but the French say dégagez four times front. Dégager means “to disengage.” You dégagé the leg to the front, side or back from a closed fifth or first position to an open position. You can dégagé to the floor, at half height (what Americans commonly know as dégagé) or at full height. Tendu means “stretched,” so the French may command in class, “Dégagez à terre avec la pointe tendue.”
Penché Pencher means “to lean.” I was watching a class at the Paris Opéra Ballet School and the teacher told the
students, “Penchez en avant et relevez-vous.” What do we envision immediately? A penché in arabesque and a relevé onto demi-pointe in arabesque. But the teacher was simply saying, “Bend the body forward (with both feet in first position) and recover.”
Passé Passer means to pass the foot from front to back and vice versa. If the foot remains in front, where are you passing to? With pirouettes: If you’re in fourth position and you bring the back foot to the front for an en dehors turn, that can be seen as a passé, but if you are in fifth with the right foot front and you lift it to the front of the knee to turn, that would properly be called retiré, which means “withdrawn.” In ABT’s curriculum, for consistency and to avoid confusion, we use the term retiré for all pirouettes, because you withdraw the foot no matter what position you begin from.
Tour jeté The French call this movement grand jeté en tournant and post-Vaganova teachers call it grand jeté entrelacé. Claude Bessy, former director of the Paris Opéra Ballet School, says that “tour jeté” makes no sense and that entrelacé does not pertain to the movement unless you do the movement with beats.
Élevé My biggest pet peeve is the use of the term élevé to describe a relevé without the use of the demi-plié. When I asked a former dancer from the Paris Opéra Ballet about this term, she looked at me with the most curious tilt of the head and asked, “How does élever pertain to ballet? I élève my glass for a toast, I can élève chickens,” which translates as “I raise my glass,” or I can “breed chickens,” “but there is no élevé movement in ballet.” The translation for élever is “to raise, bring up, breed or rear.” The reflexive verb se relever means “to raise oneself, to get up,” so when you do a relevé with straight knees, that’s just what you say.
Did you know?
Entrechat literally means “between cat.” All we can suppose is that the term came from French masters distorting the Italian word intrecciare (sounds like intrecharay), which means “to interweave, interlace.” But who knows!
Sauté is the past participle of the verb sauter, “to jump.” So when we ask a student to do 16 sautés we are asking the student to do 16 “jumped.”
Raymond Lukens studied as a dancer and teacher with masters of Russian, Danish and French ballet techniques, and holds the Enrico Cecchetti Diploma. A polyglot (he can speak five languages), Lukens has traveled the world as a performer and ballet teacher.
(photo by Rosalie O’Connor, courtesy of Raymond Lukens)
As a ballerina, Gelsey Kirkland was not only celebrated for her technical virtuosity, wild abandon and superb musical phrasing, she also distinguished herself with profound dramatic ability. Now, she wants to train future generations to do the same.
The new Gelsey Kirkland Academy of Classical Ballet (GKACB), located in the heart of New York City’s Tribeca neighborhood, will train dancers from 10 years old to young adults, and offer choreographic residencies to professionals and a comprehensive teacher-training program.
At the GKACB, the mission is storytelling. “Most schools today are dealing mainly with technique,” says Misha Chernov, Kirkland’s co-director and partner. “So when you go to the ballet, there are amazing things happening onstage, but you the audience find yourself removed from them.”
“Technically amazing,” adds Kirkland, “but we believe that the other skills in the theater—pantomime and acting—are what’s required to bring technique to life.”
To that end, in addition to studying classical ballet technique, partnering and Kirkland’s unique system of body conditioning, dancers enrolled in the GKACB will study literature, painting, sculpture, acting, mime and more.
Kirkland was relentless when it came to developing full-bodied characters and emotion onstage and therefore has so much knowledge to share. “You have to be able to discern what’s an intelligent dramatic choice, what’s an effective dramatic choice, and then how to speak with the body,” she says. “It takes many years of education. Ways that I feel are ignored at the moment.”
As a student and then a ballerina with New York City Ballet, American Ballet Theatre and The Royal Ballet, Kirkland worked closely with many notable coaches and teachers, some of whom were influential when considering the framework of her syllabus, which is based on traditional Russian, French, Danish and Italian techniques. “I had Danish training from Stanley Williams, Cecchetti from Maggie Black, kinesthetic principles from David Howard,” says Kirkland, who also delved deep into acting and mime with Pilar Garcia. “And none of these teachers could ever be pegged. It was always a journey of learning. So that’s the spirit.”
Kirkland is using the Vaganova system to bring order and organization to her academy. Vaganova’s method of teaching, when used well, is not an external style or look. It’s a set of rules that helps build technique and coordination. “When you’re sitting in the theater, you shouldn’t feel that you’re looking at a school. You should feel the power of the artist,” Kirkland says.
GKACB’s teacher-training program will be conducted by David Howard, Nina Osipyan, Robert Ray and Kirkland, herself. It can be completed as a one-year course or in modules. Along with classical ballet theory and principles, it will include training in GKACB’s system of Core Dynamics, which addresses core strength and coordination of upper- and lower-body elements, musical training for teaching ballet, introduction to drama and mime training and the opportunity to practice and further develop teaching skills by working with current GKACB students. Graduates will be recognized as certified teachers in the GKACB syllabus.
Although GKACB debuted this past summer with a three-week intensive, this fall marks the inception of the year-round program.
For more information, visit gelseykirklandballet.org.
Photo by Martha Swope, courtesy of Dance Magazine archives.