"I always had a dual path of teaching and choreography," says Mark DeGarmo. At the same time as Mark DeGarmo Dance (MDD) embarked on 28 international tours in 12 countries, the company has also partnered with New York City schools to provide programs for kids struggling in some of the toughest socioeconomic conditions. What they've learned from three decades in classrooms with these kids has set MDD apart as a model for dance education.
On a Friday afternoon in May, Rosalynde LeBlanc Loo rehearses Loyola Marymount University junior Tina Dossa in one of the dynamic, sink-or-swim sequences of Bill T. Jones' D-Man in the Waters. Explaining the use of weight and gravity, LeBlanc Loo coaches her student to “get heavy and low into the floor and find the rebound out of it." She exhorts Dossa to experience the resistance and “feel the arms cutting through water" and to change up the phrasing to give some steps more value. Perhaps most important, she reminds her student to “think of this as a task and not choreography."
From 1993 to 1999, LeBlanc Loo danced in the Bill T. Jones/Arnie Zane Company. Known for her gutsy moves and dramatic presence, she now passes on her wealth of experience as an assistant professor of dance at LMU in the Westchester suburb of Los Angeles. In March 2015, the university announced the launch of an educational partnership with Bill T. Jones/Arnie Zane Company that would bring the choreographer's works, philosophy and mentorship to a West Coast university for the first time. “I'm thrilled, honored and moved to start this partnership with LMU and couldn't be more pleased to have Rosalynde LeBlanc Loo at the helm," says Jones.
Located at the gateway to the University of Southern California's arts neighborhood, the USC Kaufman building facade and exterior have been designed in traditional Collegiate Gothic style. USC Kaufman partners with arts organizations and dance companies, such as The Music Center and Hubbard Street Dance Chicago, to present dance performances and workshops.
Ask Gelsey Kirkland to elucidate her idea of classicism and it’s easy to recall the hallmarks of her dancing, all that made her genius blaze: “It’s opposite to chaos,” she says. “It’s unity, wholeness, simplicity, a quality of patience in the body, plasticity. The body has to be able to absorb and radiate light. You have to be open, and the geometry has to be clear. It has to be very organized, and the body has to be working mechanically in an efficient way that’s not pushed.”
In their yin/yang manner of discourse, Michael Chernov, Kirkland’s husband and co-artistic director of the Gelsey Kirkland Academy of Classical Ballet, chimes in with a definition that expands beyond classical ballet. “Classicism is something that is recognized through time,” he says. “What’s classical in ancient Greece is recognized now and later. That occurs because of the qualities Gelsey is referring to—the symmetry, the harmony, the wholeness.” The idea behind classicism, he proposes, dives to the root of human nature. Are we merely flesh and blood shuffling off our mortal coil or do we possess a divine spark?
With precepts like that, establishing, running and adapting a ballet school—theirs has 80 students in the professional division, 15 in the pre-professional level and five levels in the children’s division—to today’s students could be considered somewhat of a challenge, particularly in an age where hype and mediocrity too often trump classicism, not just in ballet but in the culture at large. And yet, if you watch any of the Gelsey Kirkland Ballet’s performances of chestnuts such as The Nutcracker and The Sleeping Beauty (for the 2014–15 season it’s Don Quixote), you can see the effect of the training—even in the youngest dancers. The students are encouraged to revere the components of classicism. This results in centered pirouettes; lengthened lines of the body; port de bras that’s never thrown away; well-motivated acting; buoyant jumps; a healthy relationship to space and to other dancers; and an organic sense of purpose onstage.
In her own journey, Kirkland began as a student at The School of American Ballet, became a star at New York City Ballet as a teenager and subsequently joined American Ballet Theatre to dance the classics with Baryshnikov. Along that bumpy path, as documented in her book Dancing on My Grave, she worked with teachers such as Maggie Black and David Howard and became a muse for Balanchine, Robbins and Tudor, among others. She seemed like the perfect image of the eclecticism of American ballet: speed, drive, ambition toward perfection, perfectly streamlined technique, musicality, the versatility to dance anything with élan—sort of a Meryl Streep on pointe.
And yet, she points out, she learned classicism in reverse, backtracking from Balanchine’s neoclassicism to Petipa’s classicism. She doesn’t want her students to do that. “You can make the classical instrument go in many different directions,” she says. “I’ve experienced people who are trained in a particular neoclassical style not being able to do the classics. I’m a big believer that if you start at the center, you can move out from there. But you can’t go the other way.”
Chernov, who studied ballet and theater at the National Ballet and Theatre School in Melbourne, Australia, and the Urdang Academy in London, and danced in Europe and Australia until his retirement in 1986, offers the analogy of classical drama. “You can’t do a university course where you do four weeks of Shakespeare, four weeks of Chekhov and four weeks of Pinter,” he explains. A student needs an immersion in the spirit and language of classical theater, and a ballet dancer, they feel, needs the same with Petipa and Bournonville. “If you are doing a little bit of everything, you’ll never learn what style is, because everything will look the same—generic. That’s the summary one can make of contemporary life—that everything is becoming the same,” he adds.
And so, the GKA curriculum follows what might be considered an evolved Vaganova syllabus, which incorporates principles of alignment from Maggie Black, David Howard’s ideas about kinesiology-based movement, the core dynamics of Dreas Reyneke (who trained Kirkland at his renowned Pilates-based studio in London) and mime and acting directly with Pilar Garcia (who served as drama and mime coach to Kirkland during her ABT career). “The reason we chose Vaganova is because it’s the most logical system, the most scientifically thought-through system,” says Chernov. “We do work with the Russian system, but it’s our understanding and interpretation of all of that that makes it unique,” says Kirkland.
Both Kirkland and Chernov became convinced of the value of Russian-based training during their Vaganova teacher training, completed in 2003 at the Victorian College of the Arts in Australia, and two years separately with Russian master teacher Nina Osipyan, a former ballerina with the Moscow Classical Ballet. “Her teaching was the epitome of simplicity and naturalness,” says Kirkland. “The alignment was beautifully harmonious. It didn’t look pushed. I did her classes all the time and wrote them down.”
Most professional American dancers feel that their experience alone grants them the credentials to teach. But Kirkland realized that she needed to learn a step-by-step process, including the principle of “the divided exercise,” the Vaganova method of breaking down steps technically and teaching them at the appropriate ages.
When you watch Kirkland, now 61, teach in the GKA’s spacious, column-free, light-filled studios in Tribeca, the ease, fluidity and purposefulness of the movement help you to understand how she achieved the rapid-fire precision of Theme and Variations or the lyrical authenticity of her Giselle. One of the great powers of the school is the students’ opportunity to directly observe that.
Two examples of the specificity of Russian training are the use of the upper body and focus. The Russian emphasis on épaulement, the coordination of the port de bras, head and torso movement, Kirkland stresses, is often mistaken for style when it is actually organic principles of movement and balanced dancing. The focus comes when a student finds her own center and allows the diagonals of focus to emanate from that center, rather than gravitating to the corners of a studio or stage. With that clear focus, the student can relate directly to other dancers and to the stage space. When that happens, says Kirkland, “You can see a person.”
Kirkland and Chernov feel that pasting acting skills onto a dancer doesn’t work; dramatic motivation, including mime, must move through the body. “You have to find a plasticity and make choices to create a character,” says Chernov. “You have to understand how to embody your acting. And you have to train students on the classics,” like a piano student training on Mozart before experimenting with contemporary composers. The students sometimes even vocalize before class, to literally find their voice.
As for mime, an elusive artform for 21st-century dancers, “The first thing we tell them is it’s going to feel totally unnatural,” says Kirkland. Because storytelling through the classics is the GKA medium for developing dramatic technique, they introduce it at a young age. Last summer, the school inaugurated its Storybook Ballet Camp, for ages 3 to 8, consisting of five days covering five classical ballets: The Nutcracker, The Sleeping Beauty, Peter and the Wolf, Coppélia and Swan Lake. Each day, Pilar Garcia relates the story and teaches movement to the music.
During her performing career, Kirkland struggled mightily with the need to be perfect, an irony for many who viewed her dancing as flawless. When it comes to the GKA students, she’s determined to stop that in the doorway. “Perfectionism is the obsession,” says Chernov. “Working toward perfection is a process.”
“At the school we take in many different body types,” says Kirkland. “And so the hope is that we’ll eventually be able to work on the specifics of how to create a classical instrument within each limited body, depending on what God gave them as a gift.” Seeking perfection, in other words, can’t include the coveting of someone else’s impossibly long legs or metabolically blessed body.
What the GKA does focus on, however, is breaking bad habits that permeate much of American ballet training. “I’ve had a lot of remedial training,” says Kirkland, referring to her odyssey from eclecticism to classicism. “And that’s what we do here—fast track people. So we try to find creative ways to undo those habits and keep it interesting to them,” whether it’s unlocking a misaligned torso or re-coordinating a blockage in pirouettes en dedans.
Within the organization, Kirkland and Chernov have trained five teachers in their method and would like to establish relationships with other schools. But because their teacher training requires time, says Chernov, “You can’t do it the way ABT’s doing it with a two-week course. You have to embody the training.”
Kirkland and Chernov’s strength as a team works because of their symbiotic relationship. That’s partially what attracted Dawn Gierling, who has danced the leads in The Nutcracker and The Sleeping Beauty with the Gelsey Kirkland Ballet (which features 23 company members who have studied at the school, with additional casting from current students. Chernov and Kirkland want to expand it into a classical company that can rival ABT and NYCB). From Dawn’s first audition, her mother, Diane Gierling, saw that the school was the model they were looking for after trying several schools, including The Harid Conservatory. “The dynamics were there,” she says. “Misha (Chernov) wears 22 hats and he wears them well. And Gelsey’s methodology is top-notch.” In addition to the resources, such as individual coaching and access to first-rate medical specialists, such as Drs. William and Linda Hamilton, Gierling was impressed by the production values of the performances and how the dancers actually enjoyed what they were doing.
Through the process of running a school, both Kirkland and Chernov have learned plenty: diplomacy, patience, organization, stage management and how to corral resources. “You learn what you’re good at and what you’re bad at,” says Chernov. “You learn to hand over control for what you’re bad at or what you haven’t got the energy for…but not too quickly.” DT
A former soloist with American Ballet Theatre and the Joffrey Ballet, Joseph Carman is a longtime contributor to Dance Magazine, Pointe and Dance Teacher.
Photos from top: by Luis Pons, courtesy of GKA; (6) by Kyle Froman; by Igor Siggul, courtesy of GKA
New York City Ballet principal Daniel Ulbricht takes on a new role: artistic advisor to Manhattan Youth Ballet
Who’s the short guy at the front of the classroom with the springboard jump, permanent high spirits, muscular technique and insatiable stamina? It’s Daniel Ulbricht, principal dancer with New York City Ballet. Ulbricht is widely renowned for his electrifying presence onstage. What isn’t so well-known is his talent for teaching—and his remarkable drive to do so.
Last June, Rose Caiola, the executive artistic director of Manhattan Youth Ballet, announced that Ulbricht, who’d been teaching regularly at MYB, would become artistic advisor to the pre-professional ballet academy. The departure of François Perron, the former managing artistic director of MYB, left a vacancy for a teacher and advisor with energy, foresight and the ability to pull the best out of young ballet students.
Erin Fogarty, the director of programming at MYB, had worked with Ulbricht at the New York State Summer School of the Arts in Saratoga. “I have been friends with Daniel for many years, and I’ve seen him come to life as a dance educator,” she says. “He’s so good with kids of all ages, and he really knows how to deliver information.” NYCB principal Wendy Whelan, who teaches at MYB when her schedule allows, also admires Daniel’s teaching talent. “Daniel is a natural,” she says. “He’s organized and very confident and comfortable. The guy likes to talk and explain—he’s generous with his knowledge.”
After Perron’s departure from MYB, Ulbricht says, “I started doing a little more at the school than just the guest-teaching spot. I was frequently coaching and running rehearsals.” He sat down with the MYB staff and NYCB artistic director Peter Martins and made a plan to work this demanding post into his dancing schedule. Now, as artistic advisor, “Daniel is in a lot of the meetings for our programming—what we want with the curriculum, how we are developing and changing it, helping it grow, what the kids will perform, what variations we think they should learn,” says Fogarty. “He doesn’t sit here at a desk, but he has major decisions to make.”
But why, at the age of 27—and the apex of his performing career—would Ulbricht want to divert his energy to another demanding job? Even before the appointment, he was devoting 50 percent of his time outside of NYCB to teaching jobs, often during stretches on the road. “I’m hoping that this will help me build something,” he says. “To really sustain and accelerate progress, you have to have a more present approach to teaching. I thought it would be interesting to create a unique platform here, an open forum to make this as successful as possible for a nice caliber of teachers and students.”
“I think he’ll do a fantastic job,” Whelan says. “I’m sure he’s chomping at the bit—he has so many ideas, so much energy. He dances a lot with the company, but not as much as some others, so he wants to fill in the time with more dance.”
As artistic advisor, Ulbricht’s duties include teaching at least twice a week at MYB and helping to outline and improve a solid curriculum and standard for the school. For the past 16 years, MYB has offered a diverse curriculum that included Vaganova and Balanchine training. Ulbricht hopes to highlight the faculty’s teaching strengths and find out what shortcomings need to be addressed. “If I have one teacher teaching style A and another one teaching style B, I’m losing the cohesion I need,” says Ulbricht. “That’s probably the most sensitive area as well, because a lot of teachers get very comfortable in their styles, but that’s really what it’s about—getting the teachers on the same page so the students can take full advantage of this opportunity.”
But he admits that he will be experimenting as he goes along. “The syllabus is ever evolving in dance, I find,” he says. “You see a wave of students who do pirouettes particularly well and you go, ‘OK, that’s great.’ But if you have a school that doesn’t have very strong partners or jumpers or balancers, you need to address that. You want to find something that has a structure but can adapt. The dance world is changing, and we want our techniques to grow with it.”
Ulbricht began his teaching career at age 21, giving classes at NYSSSA during NYCB’s summer residency at Saratoga. At 23, he co-led the NYSSSA session with Jenifer Ringer and has been in demand as a teacher ever since. His style of teaching matches his vibrant presence onstage. “I would say it’s very high energy—that’s for sure,” says Ulbricht with a chuckle. “It’s a mix of strong classical technique and the speed and musical nuance that the School of American Ballet gave me. I am very positive and upbeat. I don’t want to see a student walk away from a class without reaching her potential.” A lot of students, he points out, think they can do anything because they see it on TV or YouTube. “They have to understand that there are still mechanics and technique involved—then we can have a really good discussion,” he says.
But Ulbricht wasn’t always confident at the front of the classroom. He started out so nervous that he would stutter through pliés. “I could show steps, but I had a hard time vocalizing them,” he says. Gradually, he learned that, just as with his dancing, a little fun went a long way. “I learned that the students did better when they were enjoying what they’re doing—when they weren’t doing tendus and pliés like they’re long division,” he says.
A number of mentors led Ulbricht to examine the methodology of teaching. Peter Boal, former NYCB principal and now artistic director of Pacific Northwest Ballet, tops the list. “He has a way of showing the combination without showing off,” says Ulbricht. “He realizes that sometimes people need to see how something is supposed to look. He’ll show it and you’ll say, ‘That’s amazing—I get it now.’ It’s very revealing, the way he demonstrates.” Ulbricht also cites Michael Vernon, now the Ballet Department chair at Indiana University, for giving him insight into how to work with people, and Patricia McBride and Jean-Pierre Bonnefoux for teaching him about Balanchine’s legacy while he was a student at the Chautauqua summer intensives.
Nonetheless, Ulbricht stresses that dancing is still his number-one job, and that teaching has only enhanced his performance quality. “Every time I teach a step, it’s like teaching a language—I’m looking up the verb, the origin and the usage of it,” he says. “Then I see how I can apply that knowledge to my craft onstage.”
One of Ulbricht’s top priorities for MYB is to bring in dancers from NYCB and American Ballet Theatre to teach and choreograph, making a tangible connection between the studio and the professional stage. “It’s not just about seeing so-and-so onstage in a tutu, but seeing that person and knowing that she cares about me and my dancing,” says Ulbricht. And he believes the professional dancers—Whelan included—will learn as much as the students. By encouraging both his colleagues and his students, he aspires to inspire both.
Choreographically, Ulbricht will be cutting his teeth with MYB, as well. “I always use the word ‘dabble’ when it comes to my choreography, because I think I am still discovering my voice and my process,” he says. He relishes unhurried time in the MYB studios to create, which is unlike the often-frenetic process at NYCB.
Ultimately, Ulbricht wants the ballet world to progress, and he wants to be part of the process. He thinks of his students as lightbulbs. “There are some who flicker, some who need to be replaced and some who are beaming bright,” he says. “My goal is to get that whole classroom beaming. My job is to turn it up to a brighter wattage. Success to me is if somebody says, ‘I received the best training possible.’ You never know what your students might become—they might become dancers, or fans of ballet, or philanthropists to the arts. But I want to instill that passion so that they can enjoy dance at any time in their life.” DT
Joseph Carman, former soloist with ABT and the Joffrey Ballet, is the author of Round About the Ballet.
Photo by Matthew Murphy
The pull of a professional company’s school can be hard to resist, particularly for serious pre-professional students. If you study at SAB or the San Francisco Ballet School, you are right in the backyard of the company and have an immediate connection with the organization. But a compelling case for youth ballets, which operate independently, can be made as a different means of getting the right guidance at the right age.
In some cases, youth ballets encourage their students to go on to schools connected directly with companies. But for the most part, they offer a distinct style of training that in itself is quite complete.
Central Pennsylvania Youth Ballet, founded in 1955 by Marcia Dale Weary, provided an early blueprint for schools that want to give students a serious dance education and performance opportunities. The top-level students at CPYB put in 22 hours of classes per week in eclectic training styles and give numerous performances, including George Balanchine’s The Nutcracker and repertory programs. CPYB’s graduates (including Ashley Bouder of New York City Ballet, Tina LeBlanc of San Francisco Ballet, Carrie Imler of Pacific Northwest Ballet and Noelani Pantastico of Les Ballets de Monte-Carlo) have famously gone on to dance in companies all over the world.
There are now a number of youth ballets that offer a clear alternative for students who either don’t want to or can’t attend a company school. But not all youth ballets offer the same thing. From performance opportunities and professional placement to academic goals and ages served, there is a surprising range of opportunities.
Maryland Youth Ballet, now in its 39th year, boasts alumni that include ABT stars Julie Kent and Susan Jaffe and dancers with the Joffrey Ballet, Oregon Ballet Theater and Texas Ballet Theater. The students who fit well into MYB, according to principal Michelle Lees, are those who need one-on-one observation and care. “We coach them and train them but also focus on the whole student,” says Lees. “We make sure they have their academic qualifications so they have a backup plan.” The performers in the MYB consist of 40 to 50 pre-professional students ages 13 and higher, schooled with an emphasis on proper placement and the health of the dancers. The students in the advanced division attend at least 10 classes per week, with weekends reserved for rehearsals. MYB gives around 25 performances a year, primarily the classics, such as Swan Lake, The Sleeping Beauty and Les Sylphides. Twenty to 25 percent of the graduates are placed in companies when they leave.
Lees says that one of the unique qualities of MYB is the cohesive teaching staff. “Our faculty works as a team. We are all on the same page. We sit down face-to-face with each student each year and work closely with the parents to augment the students’ goals. It’s a friendly school.” During an economic downturn, MYB successfully relocated into a new facility with five studios in Silver Spring, Maryland.
The Manhattan Youth Ballet (formerly named Studio Maestro), formed two years ago by François Perron and Rose Caiola, takes a very different route. “The reason I created Manhattan Youth Ballet is because I saw lot of kids who were 18 and were not going to a company and couldn’t stay in their school,” says Perron. So with 18 as a base age (a few apprentices have been younger), the 12 dancers (six boys and six girls) in the company and two apprentices have the opportunity to work all day, 10:30–7, taking classes and rehearsing for performances that include repertoire from choreographers as diverse as Balanchine, David Parsons and Perron. “It’s always a shock when you get into a company,” says Perron. “We try to teach them how it really works in a company and how to comport themselves, so they don’t go into shock or a depression.”
Manhattan Youth Ballet is located in the Manhattan Movement & Arts Center, which has a 170-seat theater that the company can use on a regular basis for rehearsing and performing. Perron also gives the dancers opportunities to choreograph or work behind the scenes as technical staff. Half the young professionals are on scholarship, and Perron aspires to the goal of scholarships for all in the performance group. He has placed students with North Carolina Dance Theatre, Complexions Contemporary Ballet and other troupes. The location in Manhattan is convenient for students who wish to attend any New York auditions. Previous alumni include Nicole Graniero and Roman Zhurbin of ABT. Members of the youth ballet can stay with the troupe until the maximum of age 24.
Peter Stark, former director of the Orlando Ballet School, assumed the chairmanship of the Patel Conservatory in July. He says that the disadvantage of training with a company-associated school, particularly one with a budget under $5 million, is that the students are often used to augment the corps de ballet. “That means they are rehearsing and not training,” says Stark. “For me, the benefit of a youth ballet is that you choose a repertory that becomes part of the students’ training and enhances their education.” For example, a male dancer who needs work on partnering can have a pas de deux set on him. Stark views the conservatory as a stepping stone. “I equate this to the collegiate experience for academia—you don’t go to college thinking you are going to get a job there,” he says.
While the company, located in Tampa, is still in the reorganizing and planning stages, Stark looks for dancers ages 16 to 19 (some exceptions are made for talented students as young as 14)—10 apprentice dancers (the most advanced level) and 10 trainees. As part of the larger David A. Straz, Jr. Center for the Performing Arts, the company will perform two shows per year—The Nutcracker and a year-end show. “I think they need enough performing so that they feel stimulated and challenged, but not so much that it’s going to take away from their training,” Stark says. Most of the students are home-schooled. “You have to have some sort of flexible academic program to make this possible,” he says.
Karen Mills Jennings, director of the Flint Youth Ballet, has chaired the dance division of the Flint School of Performing Arts for the last 23 years. The 30 dancers in the FYB, says Jennings, form a close-knit community, despite the diverse socioeconomic backgrounds and the different urban and rural areas represented. “In a professional school, the focus is on the professional company, the grown-up. In a youth company, the focus can be on the young people,” says Jennings.
Ranging in age from 12 to 18, the dancers must take a minimum of four classes per week and regularly perform and tour a variety of ballet, jazz, character and contemporary works. Classes and rehearsals are held on weekday afternoons and on Saturday, so that the students, who attend public, charter and home schools in central Michigan, have adequate time for academics. “One of the strengths of the FYB is the expectation that you do all styles with commitment and integrity,” says Jennings. For example, contemporary choreographer Darrell Moultrie recently created a work for the dancers, and the Balanchine Project has sent ballet masters to set works on the company. “Most of our students go through university dance programs—Indiana, Purchase, Florida State, Butler,” says Jennings. “We support that.” But their alumni have also danced in the Dayton Ballet, Texas Dance Theatre and the Sacramento Ballet, among others.
The Maple Youth Ballet, which occupies the studios of the former Ballet Pacifica in Irvine, California, comprises 25 dancers ranging in age from 14 to 19. The company danced 18 performances last year, including works such as Balanchine’s Serenade. The students are engaged in at least 24 hours of classes and rehearsals per week. Charles Maple, the director and former ABT soloist, says that one of the goals of the Maple Youth Ballet is to get them into the company-affiliated schools. “We want to help them with their confidence,” says Maple. “We are not the kind of school who wants to hold on to their dancers. We train them to be able to move into those kinds of situations. A lot of them stay because of the caliber of teaching and being able to dance numerous roles.”
The Maple Youth Ballet tries to create what Maple calls “a neutral dancer,” versatile enough to move into any style. The curriculum includes technique, pointe, variations, modern, jazz, character and improvisation workshops. The company also has seminars where students learn the basics of fundraising, branding, booking studio time and making flyers for a theoretical company. During its short tenure (it was founded three years ago), the Maple Youth Ballet has produced alumni who are dancing with the San Francisco Ballet, Stuttgart Ballet and Tulsa Ballet.
Nonetheless, there are challenges for these youth ballet companies, which are nonprofit organizations competing against numerous schools of all stripes. Perron says that ongoing fundraising is a continual push, particularly in a tough economy. His goal is to eventually have the dancers in the Manhattan Youth Ballet not only tuition-free but also paid a stipend for performances. Stark points out that in the youth ballet setting “the quality of the productions will vary from year to year depending on the quality of students you are working with.” And Jennings says that the Flint Youth Ballet is in competition not so much with the professional company schools but more so the residential ones, such as Walnut Hill School for the Arts or the Kirov Academy of Ballet of Washington, DC.
The chance to perform regularly serves as one of the strengths for dancers connected to youth ballets. Philosophies differ, however, when it comes to guest artists being brought in to augment productions. Stark, on the one hand, thinks that it’s wonderful for dancers to see outside professionals at work; while at Maryland Youth Ballet, Lees has a “no guest artist” policy, except for an occasional returning alumnus. “If we don’t have the quality of the students to do the piece, we don’t do the piece,” she says.
So, above all, what makes joining a youth ballet a unique experience? It’s the dancers and the concentrated training, says Stark. “We look for students with intellect and heart,” he says. “Push, drive and focus are what I mean by heart. Company schools are great—they’re like a flower market. But in the end, directors want talent and they’ll take it where they can get it. We strive for a youth ballet that produces high-caliber dancers.” DT
At A Glance
Flint Youth Ballet
Style taught: Russian syllabus
Tuition: by class rate plus $170 participation fee
Enrollment: 240 students
Youth Ballet dancers: 30
Scholarships: 6 merit-based scholarships per year
Auditions: from school or by open auditions held once a year
Manhattan Youth Ballet
Style taught: French, Kirov and Balanchine
Tuition: $3,200 per year for levels 6 and 7 and company
Enrollment: 113 students
Youth Ballet dancers: 12, plus apprentices
Scholarships: half of youth ballet now on scholarship
Auditions: from school or by taking company class
Maple Youth Ballet
Style taught: based on ABT curriculum
Tuition: $400 per month; company dues are approximately $100/month
Youth Ballet dancers: 25
Scholarships: awarded by merit and financial need
Auditions: by application and audition
Maryland Youth Ballet
Style taught: English-based
Tuition: starts at $140 for an 8-week session for youngest kids; $5,865 for 9 months (highest-level students)
Enrollment: 850 students
Youth Ballet dancers: 40–50
Auditions: by taking age-appropriate class
Style taught: Balanchine musicality and speed, classical port de bras
Tuition: $400 per month for trainees; apprentices on scholarship
Youth Ballet dancers: 10 apprentices and 10 trainees
Auditions: by appointment and open auditions
Joseph Carman, former soloist with ABT and the Joffrey Ballet, is author of Round About the Ballet.
Photos from top: by Jack Hartin, courtesy of Maple Conservatory, by Erin Bainco, courtesy of Manhattan Youth Ballet; by Diana Page, courtesy of Flint Youth Ballet; courtesy of Patel Conservatory
Dancers compete at a ballet competition, and the jurors disappear into a conference room to deliberate. But what really determines the scoring? The USA International Ballet Competition, the quadrennial event in Jackson, Mississippi, will be held June 12–27 this year. Jurors from 13 different countries assess the skills of the 119 competitors, who have submitted video applications to be considered for the rigorous three rounds of competition. Once admitted, these dancers compete for cash; bronze, silver and gold medals; company contracts; and scholarships.
Bruce Marks is the chairman of the international jury and has been associated with the competition for 21 years. He says, as far as the criteria for judging, there is no one single answer. “We expect high technical ability, but that is only one part of this. I continue to emphasize in my jury orientation that elusive thing called artistry—not only the ability to connect with an audience, but also to show the multifaceted nature of the artist,” he says.
Marks stresses diversity of opinion among the 13 judges—each pair of eyes sees something different. During the two preliminary rounds and final, the scores are based on a 1–10 system, with the high and low numbers thrown out, like at the Olympics, so that bias won’t creep in. Marks won’t allow jurors to discuss the artists in the jury room until the final deliberations. “I want people to score based on what they think and not to be intimidated by anyone,” he says. About half the competitors move on to the second round.
There are two categories, the junior division (ages 15–18) and the senior division (ages 19–26). “In the junior round we are looking more at the potential or future of the competitor,” says Brooke Wyatt, the USAIBC artistic administrator. “In the senior round we are looking at the whole package.”
Judges don’t always agree. When Robert Joffrey and Yuri Grigorovich were co-chairs of the competition, deliberations would go on until 3 or 4 a.m. Marks expedites the process, he says. The top senior award with a cash prize of $10,000, the Grand Prix has only been awarded four times since 1979: to José Manuel Carreño, Nina Ananiashvili, Andris Liepa and Johan Kobborg. Gold, silver and bronze medals are awarded, but only when deemed fitting.
Marks admits that ballet competitions are not for all dancers. “Some of my favorite artists—Galina Ulanova, Carla Fracci and Alessandra Ferri—I’m not sure those kinds of people could win this kind of competition.”
The greatest benefit is experiencing the USAIBC, with its classes, competition and camaraderie. “A medal is nice if you get one, but the process is the prize,” Marks says.
Joseph Carman is a contributor to Dance Magazine and author of Round About the Ballet.
Photo courtesy of USAIBC.
This August Eduardo Vilaro took over as artistic director of Ballet Hispanico, succeeding founding director Tina Ramirez, who guided the company for 38 years. While a vibrant dancer with the company from 1988 to 1996, Vilaro assisted Ramirez in creating and implementing arts education and outreach programs in New York City. Teaching has been in the Cuban-born director’s blood for years—he has taught classes around the globe, from Europe to South America.
After training at The Ailey School and Martha Graham School of Contemporary Dance, Vilaro furthered his dance training with a BFA in dance from Adelphi University and an MA from Columbia College Chicago. In 1999 he established the Chicago-based Latin-infused contemporary dance company Luna Negra, which is celebrating its 10th anniversary this month.
Luna Negra will continue in Vilaro’s vision, led by the current Rehearsal Director Michelle Manzanales for the time being. Vilaro hopes Luna Negra and Ballet Hispanico can collaborate in the future to further expand Latino culture’s influence on dance. Now that he is returning to his roots at Ballet Hispanico, Vilaro discusses his views on teaching and how they will impact his leadership of the company.
Dance Teacher: Do you plan to make changes at the company’s school?
Eduardo Vilaro: I really want to create training that follows the vision of the company. This would be a strong classical line and understanding of the classical technique; the weight of a strong modern dancer with a lot of flow and a lot of knowledge of floor work; and of course having a strong background in the various Latino dance forms. During my first tenure at BH as a dancer, we had a distinct flamenco flair, so I absolutely plan to strengthen the flamenco program. The pedagogy of flamenco for a young dancer is excellent because the torso articulates in a way that is not Afro-Caribbean, but it still enhances the spine in that same style. Dancers develop a supple, eclectic back and a signature look.
DT: Will you expand the outreach programs?
EV: I want to work on the challenges we have concerning the arts in public schools, particularly dance, to find new ways of developing curricula that will help inform young minds. You can’t create a dancer out of outreach work, but you can create better people—people who are open and have different perspectives.
DT: What do you have in store for the company?
EV: This season will begin with three brand-new works. They take a different look into the world of Latino-inspired dance, with European and American accents. I am very interested in choreographers with a Latin background, with an authentic point of view, rather than trying to revisit cultural icons.
DT: Who has been the most influential person in your teaching career?
EV: I trained at Adelphi University, and Norman Walker ran the program there. As a teacher, I learned so much from him. He had a wonderful style of rigor and compassion and was so particular and detail-oriented. He mixed nurturing aspects with a strong discipline.
DT: Was there anything in your training that helped you become the director you are now?
EV: I had a very eclectic training and that gave me a breadth of perspective as opposed to someone who is trained in one genre. My feeling is that to develop as a dancer, you need to try different styles and techniques at some point, when you are ready. Doing so also helped me learn history and appreciate legacy. Dance is an artform that is passed on visually and vocally.
DT: What do you notice about dance training today that teachers could improve on?
EV: Teachers need to make sure they give a total awareness of their dance environment. Even though it is about technique, the teachers I learned from taught me about life and art, and they really opened my eyes to understanding dance as an artform—it’s not just about a tendu.
DT: How would you describe your teaching philosophy?
EV: Transparency is very important to me. If I don’t know something, I have to continue to be a student and do the research to give proper information to the students. Sharing my passion is my philosophy. If you share passion, they will perform with passion. DT
Joseph Carman writes about dance and the arts. He is the co-author of Round About the Ballet.
Photo by Cheryl Mann, courtesy of Ballet Hispanico